Department of Doctoral Studies

The Department of Doctoral Studies offers two doctoral programs, the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD) and the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP). Scholarship is fundamental to both degrees. The PhD is a research-based program that primarily prepares students to conduct independent research and disseminate their findings. The DNP degree is a clinically-focused degree that provides graduates with the expertise to assess nursing research evidence, evaluate the impact of nursing research on nursing practice (evidence-based practice), and take a leadership role in making changes in the healthcare environment to enhance the quality of care.

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GNRS 500, Conceptual Foundations of Professional Nursing, 3 Units

This course focuses on the introductory concepts crucial to the socialization of second career students to professional nursing. The history of nursing, the evolution of nursing in the U.S., the art and science of nursing, the legal and professional basis of nursing, the role of nursing in the health care delivery system, and current issues and trends in nursing education, practice and research are emphasized.

GNRS 501, Theoretical Thinking in Nursing, 2-4 Units

This course examines questions about the nature and construction of theory and how theoretical ideas are developed and used in nursing practice and research. Philosophical ideas underlying theory are examined and selected theoretical models and theories are explored.

Prerequisite: completion of undergraduate research course or instructor's consent

GNRS 502, Advanced Clinical Decision Making, 2 Units

The theory and practice of clinical decision making in nursing provides the major course focus. Factors which influence the clinical decision-making process are examined, and practical applications within the clinical area identified. The relationship between clinical decision making and policy formulation is analyzed. The role of nursing diagnoses in clinical decision making is critiqued.

GNRS 503, Cultural Competency in Health Care, 3 Units

This course will focus on transforming the graduate nursing student, preparing for nursing leadership in nursing practice, nursing research, education, and public health policy, for the improvement of patient healthcare outcomes in our increasingly diverse society. Students will move from cultural sensitivity and awareness to critical reflection and action, challenging their assumptions and broadening their perspectives. AACN's The Essentials of Master's Education for Advanced Practice Nursing (2011) serves as the foundation for the development of core cultural competencies.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in the School of Nursing

GNRS 504, Bioethics and Health Care Policy, 3 Units

This course will outline the role of the healthcare leader in ensuring human rights are upheld in healthcare systems. This course focuses on bioethical analysis, decision-making and moral policy analysis, and formulation.Through course discussion, group and individual assignments, and oral and written presentations, students will analyze and apply bioethical principles to decision- and policy- making processes in the workplace and at national levels. Healthcare ethics and policy will be considered from a Christian worldview.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 505, Christian Formation for Holistic Care, 3 Units

Students engage in the process of discovering the foundational values of Azusa Pacific University that serve as guiding principles for the distinctive education they will receive. They are made aware of the Christian worldview and its implications for personal holistic development and care. With a focus on developing motivating character and integrated caregivers, the course brings heightened self-awareness, the impact of a Christian worldview on vocation, scriptural awareness especially emphasizing healing themes in the life of Christ, and the importance of spiritual growth on the journey toward formation.

GNRS 506, Spiritual Concept Analysis in Health Care, 3 Units

Scholarly research and analysis of selected concepts in the spiritual care of persons from the Judeo-Christian perspective provide a central focus to the course. Students also examine healthcare research/other healthcare literature for adequacy with respect to the concept they select. Various assignments facilitate greater student awareness of their own spiritual journey and knowledge of faith traditions other than their own. The course is conducted as a tutorial/seminar experience.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 507, Scientific Writing, 3 Units

This course provides opportunities for students to learn how to introduce a topic or issue, articulate a thesis, support and develop a thesis and subordinate claims, work with secondary sources, and organize an argument.

GNRS 508A, Research and Theory in Advanced Practice Nursing, 4 Units

This course prepares nurses to use theory and research evidence in advanced clinical practice. The relationship between theory and research is examined, exploring questions about the nature, construction, and use of each. Selected theoretical models and theories are explored, and students learn how ideas are developed and used in nursing practice and research. Students deepen their understanding of the research process by engaging in a systematic search, critique, and summary of research studies with direct application to nursing practice. Experience in statistical analysis of research data is included.

Prerequisites: computer literacy, undergraduate research course, undergraduate statistics course, and graduate standing

GNRS 508B, Research and Theory in Healthcare, 4 Units

This course prepares the healthcare administrator to apply theory and research evidence in healthcare environments. The relationship between theory and research is examined, exploring questions about the nature, construction, and use of each. Selected theories are explored, and students learn how ideas are developed and used in practice and research. Students learn the fundamentals of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research and deepen their understanding through systematic search, critique, and summary of research studies with application to healthcare. Students work in groups to develop a research plan addressing a healthcare-derived question. Experience in statistical analysis of research data is included.

Prerequisite: GNRS 613 Graduate Statistics

GNRS 509, Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory, 3 Units

A variety of qualitative research approaches and issues, including grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography, are introduced and explored. Students collect and analyze qualitative data using the constant comparative methodology of grounded theory.

Prerequisites: GNRS 508A and instructor's consent

GNRS 510, Family Theory in Health Care, 2 Units

The major theoretical perspectives for understanding the family as a core unit of analysis are studied. This course fosters the student's recognition of the family's responsibility for health. Factors such as family patterns and care-giving tasks of families experiencing catastrophic or chronic alteration in health care are examined. This class is offered online.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 511, Advanced Pediatric Health Assessment and Health Promotion, 4 Units

This course develops the graduate nurse's assessment skills and focuses on the promotion of health in the pediatric population from the newborn period through adolescence. The emphasis is on adapting and expanding the medically focused history and physical assessment to incorporate the assessment of traditional health practices and to identify culturally relevant and age appropriate health promotion strategies. Outcomes are examined in light of related theoretical concepts. Strategies for health promotion include a focus on developmental and behavioral assessments, emotional health, nutrition, counseling to modify risk factors, and screening tests/prophylaxis for early detection and prevention of disease.

Prerequisites: undergraduate health assessment, pathophysiology, Academic Core, and all other Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 512, Advanced Health Assessment and Health Promotion, 4 Units

The course develops the graduate nurse's assessment skills and focus on the promotion of health in individuals across the age range and within a family, community, and cultural context. The emphasis is on adapting and expanding the medically focused history and physical assessment to incorporate the assessment of traditional and nontraditional therapies and to identify culturally relevant and age appropriate health promotion strategies for common episodic complaints and chronic health conditions. Outcomes are examined in light of theoretical concepts. Strategies for health promotion include a focus on lifestyle, mental health, nutrition, counseling to modify risk factors, and screening tests/prophylaxis for the early detection and prevention of disease.

Prerequisites: undergraduate health assessment, pathophysiology, Academic Core, and all other Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 513, Advanced Nursing Practice Role, 2 Units

This course focuses on the concepts of role development and performance competence of the nurse in advanced clinical practice within the context of a reformed health care delivery system. Emphasis is placed on the clinician, educator, clinical program manager, consultant, researcher, and case manager roles of the advanced practice nurse. The leadership aspects of the roles of advanced practice are explored in relation to health care delivery, policy formulation, and legislation. The course explores theories and issues related to the advanced nursing practice role.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 514, Research Proposal Writing, 2 Units

This course focuses on the application of the concepts in GNRS 508A. The goal is the completion of a research proposal that details the problem, the research purpose, questions or hypotheses to be tested, a critique of the literature, the design and methods of the study including protection of human subjects, the plans for analysis, use of the study, and the budget and personnel.

Prerequisite: GNRS 508A

GNRS 515, Advanced Pathophysiology, 3 Units

This course builds on basic anatomy and physiology and undergraduate study of pathophysiology. It focuses on development of an advanced understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of human health disorders. Diagnostic reasoning that facilitates the clustering of signs and symptoms leading to diagnosis is a key process undergirding the course. This course requires the integration of signs and symptoms, clinical testing (such as laboratory and radiologic studies), and pathophysiologic mechanisms with diagnoses.

Prerequisites: graduate standing and undergraduate pathophysiology

GNRS 516, Integrative Disease and Symptom Management, 3 Units

Using a systems-based approach, this course provides the student with a broad-based, graduate-level overview for understanding disease processes, treatment modalities, assessment and interventional strategies for patients across the life span.

GNRS 518, Supervised Practicum in Healthcare, 3 Units

This course will prepare the student to integrate and apply theory, evidence-based practice, and national guidelines and standards in Fieldwork/Clinical/field settings. Students will select Fieldwork/Clinical/field areas in which, with faculty approval, they will participate in precepted experiences. The purpose of the course is to enable the student to gain current, in-depth knowledge in a selected practice area.

GNRS 520, Theory and Practice of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in Nursing Care of Adult-Gerontology Patients, 6 Units

Critical concepts in advanced collaborative management of adult-gerontology client populations by Clinical Nurse Specialists are studied. Differential diagnosis, pharmacologic management, cultural sensitivity, adult-gerontology continuum of health and illness (i.e., wellness, health promotion, disease prevention), teaching-learning theory, and evidence-based best practices for clinical decision-making for the Adult and Geriatric population are highlighted. CNS roles, competencies, and professional issues and integrated clinical rotations will be chosen from critical care or medical-surgical adult-gerontology populations. Clinical seminar times allow students to discuss and analyze current professional issues and clinical problems in a collegial atmosphere.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses, current RN license, CPR certificate, and meets health screening requirements

GNRS 521, Clinical Specialization in the Care of Adult-Gerontology Patient, 6 Units

The course prepares the student to apply concepts introduced in GNRS 520. It focuses on diagnosis and collaborative disease management of acute illness in the adult-gerontology patient by the Clinical Nurse Specialist. The integration of advanced skill development, theory and evidence based practice, disease management, clinical decision making, unit and organization management issues, professional issues and APRN role competencies are the foundation for this course. Practicum and seminars are planned to span the breadth of the students' clinical opportunities.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses, GNRS 520, current RN license, CPR certificate, and meets health screening requirements

GNRS 530, Theory and Practice of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in the Care of the Pediatric Patient, 6 Units

Critical concepts in the advanced collaborative management of pediatric client populations by the Clinical Nurse Specialists are studied. Differential diagnosis, pharmacologic management, cultural sensitivity, pediatric continuum of health and illness (i.e., wellness, health promotion/disease prevention), teaching-learning theory, and evidence-based/best practices for clinical decision-making for the Pediatric population are highlighted. CNS roles, competencies, and professional issues are integrated. Clinical rotations will be chosen from critical care or medical-surgical pediatric populations. Clinical seminar times allow students to discuss and analyze current professional issues and clinical problems in a collegial atmosphere.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses, current RN license, CPR certificate, and meets health screening needs

GNRS 531, Clinical Specialization in the Care of the Pediatric Patient, 6 Units

The course prepares the student to apply concepts introduced in GNRS 530. It focuses on diagnosis and collaborative disease management of acute illness in the pediatric patient by the Clinical Nurse Specialist. The integration of advanced skill development, theory and evidence based practice disease management, clinical decision making, unit and organization management issues, professional issues and APRN role competencies are the foundation for this course. Practicum and seminars are planned to span the breadth of the students' clinical opportunities.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses, GNRS 530, current RN license, CPR certificate, malpractice insurance, and meets health screening requirements

GNRS 532, Advanced Nursing Practice in Pediatrics, 6 Units

This course emphasizes physiological and psychological basis for critical and chronic conditions in children. Exploration of traditional versus alternate medicine treatment plans, relevant cultural, spiritual and health promotion strategies are incorporated. An advanced science base for the assessment, diagnosis, and management of children and families to promote wellness are the focus of this course.

Prerequisites: Graduate status, completion of GNRS 590A and GNRS 590B

GNRS 533, Psychiatric Theories across the Life Span, 2 Units

This course presents neurobiologic, neuroendocrine, genomic, behavioral, and psychodynamic theories of psychiatric mental illnesses as they manifest among members of diverse cultural groups across the life span. A theoretical foundation for subsequent coursework in primary psychiatric mental health care is provided for the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner.

Prerequisite: graduate standing;

corequisite: GNRS 534

GNRS 534, Integrated Psychiatric and Health Assessment across the Lifespan, 2 Units

This course teaches the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in interviewing, assessing, and utilization of other data collection methods to elicit, analyze, and evaluate bio-psychosocial information regarding psychiatric mental health illness as experienced and understood by the clients, across the lifespan. Assessment and integration of the effects of potential and/or existing co-morbid health problems are focused upon. Diagnostic reasoning that is based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual is foundational in the course. Development of differential diagnoses and disease management, evidence-based practice, and health promotion that includes client and nurse practitioner collaboration is emphasized.

Prerequisite or corequisite: GNRS 533

GNRS 535, Psychiatric Interventions and Health Promotion across the Life Span, 6 Units

In this course students learn historical, theoretical, and contemporary evidence-based psychotherapies that promote and support client stabilization, rehabilitation, and recovery. The client as a collaborating decision making consumer and the client-clinician therapeutic alliance are central to this course. Students increase competence in assessment of psychiatric mental health illnesses, differential diagnoses and disease management, implementation of psychotherapy (individual, group, family), medication management, and health promotion interventions, including motivational interviewing. Student competence in developing and facilitating therapeutic groups as a recovery modality are included in the course. The role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in the integration and coordination of support services that impact mental health and illness is also included. Students practice verbal psychotherapeutic skills that motivate and facilitate client self-management and progression toward recovery.

Prerequisites: GNRS 533 and GNRS 534; prerequisite or

corequisite: GNRS539

GNRS 536, Psychiatric Mental Health Care with Adults and Older Adults, 6 Units

In this course students increase their knowledge and competence in the assessment of psychiatric mental health illnesses, differential diagnoses and disease management, implementation of psychotherapy (individual, family, group), evidence-based practice, medication management, health promotion and disease prevention interventions, integration and coordination of support services, with adults and older adults.

Prerequisites: GNRS 533, GNRS 534, GNRS 535, GNRS 539

GNRS 537, Psychiatric Mental Health Care with Children and Adolescents, 6 Units

In this course, students increase competence in the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in the assessment of psychiatric mental health illnesses, differential diagnosis and disease management, implementation of psychotherapy (individual, family, group), evidence-based practice, medication management, health promotion and disease prevention interventions, integration and coordination of support services with children, adolescents, and families.

Prerequisites: GNRS 533, GNRS 534, GNRS 535, GNRS 539

GNRS 538, Psychiatric Mental Health Care with Selected Populations, 5 Units

Students increase knowledge and competence in the assessment of psychiatric and mental health illnesses, differential diagnosis and disease management, implementation of psychotherapy (individual, family, group), medication management, health promotion and disease prevention interventions, and integration and coordination of support services with a selected population. Focus is on integrating and practicing all aspects of the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner with clients who are experiencing acute and/or chronic mental health problems and psychiatric disorders.

Prerequisites: GNRS 533, GNRS 534, GNRS 535, GNRS 536, GNRS 537 or corequisite GNRS 537

GNRS 539, Psychopharmacology, 2 Units

Students in this course build upon knowledge of advanced practice nursing and provides content essential for the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner to prescribe appropriate pharmacologic treatment in practice. Mechanisms of action, interactions, side effects, and prescribing guidelines for psychopharmaceuticals commonly utilized across the lifespan are addressed.

Prerequisites: GNRS 533, GNRS 534; corequisite GNRS 535

GNRS 540, Care Management, 2 Units

This course focuses on principles and models of care management and its implementation in a multidisciplinary practice environment that emphasizes health care delivery through system integration. The student is introduced to decision making related to allocation of resources and services, the development of clinical pathways, and evaluation of management approaches. Integral to care management is the promotion of consumer education, involvement and advocacy.

Prerequisite: completion of one graduate clinical specialty course

GNRS 541, Clinical Practicum in Care Management, 2 Units

This clinical course promotes the development of care management skills in collaborative practice with members of the health care team. It allows the student opportunities to apply principles of care management and utilize care management tools and methods to improve patient care and health outcomes. Evaluation of clinical and case management activities is an integral component of the course.

Prerequisite: completion of one graduate clinical specialty course

GNRS 542, Advanced Concepts and Competencies in Pediatric Primary Health Care, 3 Units

This course offers a comprehensive review and synthesis of core concepts and competencies for the pediatric advanced practice nurse in the primary care setting. This culminating experience for pediatric nurse practitioner students incorporates seminar discussions and clinical practicum placement. The course also provides a discussion of developmental/behavioral issues, management of acute and chronic care illnesses seen in primary care settings, and preventative health care.

Prerequisites: graduate standing; completion of (or with instructor's permission, concurrent enrollment in) GNRS532; completion of GNRS 590A and GNRS590B

GNRS 543, Transitions Across the Care Continuum, 4-6 Units

This course focuses on principles and models of care and their implementation in a multidisciplinary practice environment that emphasizes health care delivery through integration of services and transition management. The student is introduced to decision-making related to allocation of resources and services, development of protocols and evaluation of management approaches. Evidence-based approaches to the clinical, administrative, educational and research dimensions of patient care will be emphasized. Evaluation of care management activities with the student's selected clinical population is an integral component of the course.

Prerequisite: For NP and CNS students - completion of one clinical specialization course.

GNRS 543P, Transitions Across the Care Continuum - Practicum, 0 Units

GNRS 544, Clinical Specialization Residency, 2-3 Units

The elective clinical residency is a clinical specialty experiential program designed as a collaborative partnership between the School of Nursing and selected community health care organizations. This residency is an intensive precepted clinical experience planned to ease the role transition from a student nurse to a beginning professional nurse in a specialized setting. In addition, it enhances the skill and practice knowledge of the student in preparation for the RN licensing examination. The student will increase their ability to perform clinical reasoning with the assigned patient population and evaluate QSEN competencies of patient centered care, safety, evidence based practice, informatics, and teamwork and collaboration.

Prerequisite: Completion of/or concurrent with GNRS 573.

GNRS 546, Theory and Practice in Health Care Systems in the Community, 6 Units

This specialized course prepares RNs without a bachelor's degree for graduate study in nursing. A multiple theoretical focus that includes concepts from systems, stress, adaptation, developmental, and role theory is emphasized. A beginning practice in the utilization of the nursing process with an emphasis on nursing diagnosis and the nurse's role in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating care of clients in a variety of community settings is provided. Collaboration with community-based organizations and services that provide health restoration, maintenance, illness prevention, and client education services to individuals and families at home are essential course components. A review of legal mandates for practice and discussion of ethical dilemmas and issues related to high quality nursing care are included. Specific content varies based on the students' prior education and experience. Clinical placements are arranged to meet the individual student's needs.

Prerequisites: undergraduate research, pathophysiology, and health assessment

GNRS 547, Nursing Leadership in Acute Care Settings, 6 Units

This is one of two clinical courses provided for the RN who seeks both a bachelor's and master's degree in nursing. The course synthesizes selected information from the generic bachelor's and master's programs for presentation in a condensed format, addressing the development and nature of today's health care systems and associated issues in the United States. Further, content familiarizes the student with several roles and responsibilities of the contemporary nurse, such as leader, consultant, teacher, manager, and client advocate. The course focuses on client needs in acute health care settings and emphasizes the relationship between the health care system and the advocate.

Prerequisites: undergraduate research, pathophysiology, and health assessment

GNRS 548, Health Promotion Across the Lifespan, 2 Units

The course focuses on health promotion and disease prevention across the lifespan and around the globe. The course includes exploration of population health issues, environmental implications in health and health policy, impact on health promotion and the development of disease.

Prerequisites: Academic Core, Advanced Practice Core courses, current RN license, CPR certificate, and meets health screening requirements.

GNRS 550A, Theory and Practice in School Nursing, 6 Units

This combined didactic and clinical course provides theoretical content and field experiences that emphasize the multifaceted role of the school nurse. The student participates in field experiences and classroom learning activities that focus on the assessment and management of children's health care needs in various school settings. This course provides the student with the necessary tools and skills to successfully function as a professional school nurse. At the conclusion of this course, the student will be able to successfully function as a provider of health education as well as a provider, planner, and coordinator of health care in school settings.

Prerequisites: All School Nurse Services Credential courses except GNRS 590A; GNRS 589 may be taken concurrently

GNRS 555, Medical Surgical Care of the Adult and Geriatric Patient, 7 Units

This course introduces crucial concepts to professional nursing care such as nursing process, communication, therapeutic interventions, and critical thinking and clinical reasoning. The course focuses on the application of biological, psychosocial, and spiritual concepts to hospitalized adult and elderly clients with acute and/or chronic illnesses. Students will be guided in critical thinking and clinical reasoning exercises in the management of hospitalized clients. Nursing process is utilized to provide care to one or two adult clients within the health care delivery system of an acute care setting. The clinical practicum focuses on the cognitive basis, scientific principles, and manipulative component of psychomotor skills used when providing nursing care. Students will have an opportunity to practice simulated clinical skills.

Prerequisites: Admission to the ELM program; completion of all prerequisite courses for the program

GNRS 556, Intermediate Medical Surgical Care of the Adult, 7 Units

This course is designed to build on the base of medical-surgical nursing knowledge from GNRS555. The course focuses on comprehensive nursing care to patients with acute need for continuous cardiac monitoring, pulse oximetry monitoring, or ventilator assistance in telemetry units, in restorative care setting, or long-term care setting.

Prerequisites: admission to the ELM program; successful completion of GNRS 555

GNRS 557, Medical Spanish for Advanced Practice Nurses, 3 Units

This course provides non-Spanish speaking advanced practice nursing students with foundational knowledge of Spanish language structure and vocabulary, building appropriate phrasing to facilitate communication in health care settings. Cultural issues relevant to health and illness in the Latino community are also addressed.

Prerequisites: graduate nursing student standing, or instructor's permission

GNRS 559, Audiometry for School Nurses, 3 Units

This course provides didactic instruction via eCollege and eight hours of on-site practicum experience that emphasizes the content and clinical expertise necessary to fulfill the requirements of the State of California School Hearing Conservation Program and training for the school audiometrist. The course focuses on the physiologic process of hearing and how to assess for deficits in hearing in children of all ages. At the conclusion of the course, and after having completed successfully all learning objectives, the student is eligible to submit an Application for Registration as a School Audiometrist in the State of California (a $10 registration fee is required with the application).

GNRS 560, Strategic Leadership in Healthcare, 3 Units

This course is designed to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes about leadership across the healthcare continuum. The student will consider the professional role of the healthcare administrator both from a leadership and a management perspective. Areas of concentration will include leadership theory, structure of healthcare institutions, systems thinking and decision-making, performance improvement including quality and safety issues, risk management and effective communication skills. Application of business skills will be integrated. Students will consider the theoretical and research background, current issues and trends, leadership and administrative implications of specific topics.

GNRS 564, Nutrition and Therapeutics, 2 Units

Functions of nutrients and the consequences of their deficiencies and excesses in the body are explored. Students are introduced to a variety of tools for planning and evaluating diets including a computer diet analysis. Application of nutrition concepts are interwoven into health care and fitness conditions. Students look at the prevention of chronic disease as it relates to proper nutrition and adequate exercise.

Prerequisite: Admission to the ELM program

GNRS 567, Healthcare Administration and Leadership Supervised Practicum, 3 Units

This course provides the student with the opportunity to experience the role of healthcare administrator. An individualized administration practicum in a specific area of clinical emphasis is chosen by the student and approved and monitored by the faculty and preceptor. Competencies that govern the role of the healthcare administrator are explored in depth. Students focus on the context for enacting the role of administrator in a healthcare delivery system.

Prerequisites: GNRS 504, GNRS 506, GNRS 508B, GNRS 543, GNRS 560, GNRS 568, GNRS 596, GNRS 613 and MGMT 516, MGMT 517

GNRS 568, Healthcare Finance, 4 Units

This course is an introduction to financial concepts and skills need for healthcare leaders, managers, and executives. The student will develop skills in assessing multiple dimensions of financial performance and methods to improve the financial health of an organization in the context of current patient care system.

GNRS 569, Quality and Safety for Health Care Practice, 2 Units

This course is designed to deepen and advance the student's knowledge and ability to systematically apply the principles of patient quality and safety into nursing practice. Based on national standards, the focus will be to examine and apply qualify and safety tools, including informatics, that can be used to improve patient care delivery across the continuum of health care.

GNRS 570, Parish Nursing/Health Ministries, 2 Units

This course provides an introduction to and overview of health ministry and parish nursing theory and practice. The philosophy of the course is that (a) the parish nursing role is that of a specialist in spiritual aspects of patient care in the congregational context, requiring the integration of graduate level theology/ministry and nursing theory and praxis; and (b) health ministry is an emerging role and trend in pastoral ministry that seeks to bring professional ministry skill to bear upon the integration of health, faith, and spirituality in the parish setting.

GNRS 573, Clinical Residency, 4 Units

The clinical residency is an internship clinical experiential program designed as a collaborative partnership between the School of Nursing and selected community in-patient health care organizations. This residency is an intensive preceptored clinical experience planned to ease the role transition from a student nurse to a beginning professional nurse in an acute-care setting. In addition, it enhances the skill and practice knowledge of the student in preparation for the RN licensing examination.

Prerequisites: Successful completion of all pre-licensure clinical courses

GNRS 575, Nursing Care in Maternal, Newborn, and Women's Health, 4 Units

This course focuses on the theoretical and clinical concepts of the childbearing patient, her infant, and her family. The students study both normal and complicated obstetrics. Selected issues of women's health are explored. The student is introduced to birth preparation, prenatal care, normal neonatal, and postpartum care with concurrent clinical experiences.

Prerequisites: admission to the ELM program; successful completion of semesters one and two

GNRS 576, Pharmacology, 2 Units

This course is designed for students who have completed organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry. The content focuses on principles of pharmacology and specifics of the major drug classifications.

Prerequisite: admission to the ELM program

GNRS 578, Health Assessment, 3 Units

This course provides the nursing student with skills in physical, spiritual, and psychosocial assessment of adult clients. History-taking and physicalexamination techniques presented in the course help the student develop strong assessment skills upon which further knowledge and practice can be built. Basic concepts related to assessment of geriatric, pediatric, and childbearing patients are included.

Prerequisite: Admission to the ELM program

GNRS 580, Gerontology, 2 Units

This course integrates research and writings about the major trends and developments in the field of gerontology as they apply to the field of nursing. The approach is interdisciplinary and course material includes information from the fields of sociology, psychology, anthropology, biological sciences, medicine, nursing and psychiatry. Development in adulthood will be viewed from multiple perspectives which include cognitive, behavioral, biological, social-cultural and spiritual. The influences that these perspectives have on the successful negotiation of age-related issues will be considered. Finally students will examine aspects of human aging both in contemporary American society and from a cross-cultural and ethnic perspective.

Prerequisite: Graduate status in the School of Nursing.

GNRS 581, Primary Health Care of the Older Adult, 5 Units

GNRS 581 focuses on the role of the adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioner in the management of the older adult including health promotion, assessment, treatment, and maintenance of common primary care health problems. The clinical practicum emphasizes the application of theory and evidence-based research for the delivery of culturally competent assessment and treatment of the older adult within the context of their families and in a variety of outpatient settings.

Prerequisites: Graduate status in the School of Nursing. Completion of Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses.

GNRS 582A, Pathophysiology, 2 Units

This course presents an introduction to human pathophysiology. Mechanisms causing alterations in cellular activity, maintenance of cellular tissue oxygenation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and neuroendocrine control of the body are included. Common pathophysiologic disorders are emphasized.

Prerequisite: admission to the ELM program

GNRS 582B, Pathophysiology, 2 Units

This course continues the presentation an introduction to human pathophysiology. Mechanisms causing alterations in cellular activity, maintenance of cellular tissue oxygenation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and neuroendocrine control of the body are included. Common pathophysiologic disorders are emphasized.

Prerequisites: admission to the ELM program; successful completion of GNRS 582A

GNRS 583, Nursing Care of Children and Young Adults, 4 Units

This theoretical and clinical course focuses on the care of children from birth through adolescence. The effects of acute and chronic illness on growth and development are studied in the acute and community health care setting. Education of the child and family on health promotion, disease prevention, and safety issues are addressed. Ethical issues are discussed regarding the relationship to the child and family, including issues such as child abuse, informed consent, and the impact of diverse cultural and spiritual beliefs on health care decisions in the family.

Prerequisites: Admission to the ELM program; successful completion of semesters one and two

GNRS 584, Mental Health Nursing, 4 Units

This theoretical and clinical course focuses on the dynamics of psychosocial stress within the interpersonal and intrapersonal systems of clients with acute and chronic psychiatric disorders.

Prerequisites: Admission to the ELM program; successful completion of semesters one and two

GNRS 586, Leadership and Management in Professional Practice, 2 Units

This course emphasizes leadership and management theory including systems theory in a number of applications and settings. Its assists the upcoming graduate in adjusting to various organizations encountered by professional nurses serving in a variety of roles. Core concepts relevant to the clinical settings are presented using a systems approach. Emphasis on nursing case management is included.

GNRS 587, Community Health Nursing, 5 Units

This course has two areas of focus within the community setting: the study of principles and practices involved in community health nursing, and the development of skills for teaching a group of clients. The emphasis is on the role of the nurse in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating care of clients in a variety of community-based settings, with a focus on care of the gerontological client. Collaboration with community-based organizations and services that provide health restoration, maintenance, illness prevention, and client education services to individuals, families, and aggregates are essential components of this course. A review of legal mandates and regulations, as well as discussion of ethical dilemmas and issues related to community-based care is included.

Prerequisites: Admission to the ELM program; successful completion of semesters one, two, and three

GNRS 588, Advanced Nursing Care of Adults - Leadership, 6 Units

This course involves the application of pathophysiological, psychosocial, and spiritual concepts to adult and geriatric clients experiencing the stress of illness in acute settings. The primary focus of the course is to care for critically ill clients and their families with complex health care needs in a critical-care setting. A second area of focus is on the utilization of leadership and management concepts/skills in providing comprehensive care to groups of clients and families. Emphasis is placed on preparing the student to practice in a beginning leadership role in managing client care. Legal and ethical issues related to acute care are included.

Prerequisites: Admission to the ELM program; GNRS 579A and GNRS 579B, GNRS 582, GNRS 585

GNRS 589, Adolescent Health Care, 2-4 Units

GNRS 589 focuses on the growth and development of adolescents as well as assessment, prevention, and management of common health and psychosocial problems in this population. Emphasis is placed on age-appropriate and culturally-competent provision of primary health care to adolescents in a family system.

Prerequisites: Graduate status in the School of Nursing. 2 unit course requires completion of GNRS 515, GNRS 594. 4 unit course requires GNRS 515, GNRS 594, and GNRS 511 or GNRS 512.

GNRS 590A, Primary Health Care of the Young Family, 6 Units

This combined theory and clinical course focuses on management of health care of children (from birth through adolescence) and their families. Theory and clinical experiences emphasize assessment, prevention, and management of physiological, social, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and educational needs of the child as an individual and as a family member. The effects of culture on development, parenting, and health care practices are emphasized. The course provides theory and clinical experiences in the management of normal and common pathological conditions to prepare students for advanced nursing practice in the role of nurse practitioner.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 590B, Clinical Practicum in Pediatrics, 4 Units

The student develops expanded skills in the comprehensive assessment and management of common childhood illnesses and problems and continues to gain skill in promoting child wellness. Application of theory and research is emphasized in the care of common illnesses throughout the childhood years.

Prerequisites: Successful completion of GNRS 511 or GNRS 512

GNRS 591, Primary Health Care of the Childbearing Family, 4 Units

This course focuses on the assessment and management of the primary health care needs of the reproductive family. Emphasis is placed on health promotion and maintenance, disease prevention, curative, and restorative care. Cross-cultural aspects related to parents, male and female, of the childbearing family are addressed.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 592A, Primary Health Care of the Adult and Aging Family, 6 Units

This combined theory and clinical course focuses on the role of the nurse practitioner (NP) in caring for mature adults and aging family members, from young adulthood to elderly adulthood. Emphasis is placed on the management of common primary health problems of these age groups. The delivery of culturally competent primary health care interventions of young, middle-aged, and elderly adults is addressed.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 592B, Primary Health Care Clinical Practicum, 2 Units

This course provides the final comprehensive clinical management experience, allowing FNP and AGNP students to apply knowledge gained throughout their course of study. Clinical conferences provide opportunity for discussion of role development issues and clinical case studies. Students engage in the clinical assessment and management of adults of diverse cultural backgrounds with routine and complex health problems in out-patient settings. Under the supervision of qualified preceptors and School of Nursing faculty, the student must complete his/her clinical hours and demonstrate mastery to perform the role of an entry-level nurse practitioner.

Prerequisite: Completion of clinical courses for the FNP or AGNP program track.

GNRS 593, Psychosocial Primary Health Care of the Adult and Aging Family, 4 Units

This combined didactic and clinical course focuses on psychosocial primary health care of the mature and aging family. Didactic content and clinical experiences emphasize the advanced practice nursing role in the medical management of chronic illness with concurrent assessment for psychosocial stressors that impact the experience and management of chronic illness. Students learn to tailor patient-centered therapeutic strategies, including presence, multi-faceted functional assessment, motivational interviewing, stress reduction techniques and spiritual support to individual patients.

Prerequisites: Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 594, Pharmacology in Advanced Practice Nursing, 3 Units

This course builds upon basic knowledge in pharmacology and provides content essential for the advanced practice nurse to render appropriate pharmacological treatment in practice. Mechanisms of action, interactions, side effects, and prescribing guidelines for drugs commonly utilized across the life cycle are addressed. Variations in pharmacological reactions attributed to cultural factors are emphasized. Strategies for fostering individual/family adherence to pharmacological regimens are examined. This course meets the requirements of the California Board of Registered Nursing in the application of a "furnishing number" by the advanced practice nurse in California.

Prerequisites: Academic Core courses

GNRS 595, Special Topics in Nursing, 1-6 Units

In this course, a topic of current interest to students is examined in depth. Students analyze and evaluate topics/issues to reach and express a position, enhance personal development and/or to develop a particular project. If students elect this course more than once during their program, each such course must address a different topic.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 596, Foundations of Healthcare Informatics, 3 Units

This course provides an overview of basic concepts for practice in healthcare-oriented informatics. These core concepts include an introduction to clinical and translational informatics; foundational theory and practical application of clinical decision making and computerized decision support; healthcare systems and their organization; the special issues of administration, security, and operations of electronic records in the healthcare setting; human factors issues; information science in the healthcare domain; standards, terminologies, and the uniqueness of biomedical data; and a special focus on emerging technologies.

GNRS 597, Comprehensive Examination Directed Study, 1 Unit

This course guides the student through the process of demonstrating an integration of theoretical, clinical, and research knowledge. Critical thinking is enhanced through careful consideration of information presented during discussion. The examinations are taken as part of this seminar.

Prerequisites: completion of all Academic Core, Advanced Practice Core, and Specialty courses

GNRS 598, Thesis, 1 Unit

A student initially enrolls in this option toward the latter part of the program for one unit of credit. The student registers for one unit of thesis credit each semester (two of three semesters per year) until the thesis is completed.

Prerequisites: GPA of 3.5 or above, chair's consent for thesis option, and completion of all Academic Core and Advanced Practice Core courses

GNRS 599, Readings/Independent Study in Nursing, 1-4 Units

A student may elect to pursue special interests for credit at any time during the program under the supervision of a faculty member. University policy states that the student must earn a grade in an independent study course in order to receive credit toward graduation.

Prerequisite: graduate standing

GNRS 613, Graduate Statistics, 3 Units

This course presents the knowledge of descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics used in nursing research that serves as the basis for evidence-based practice. Students develop the ability to perform descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques, use software applications to aid in statistical calculations and presentation, and interpret findings.

GNRS 620, Genome Science in Healthcare, 3 Units

This course covers basic genomic concepts and technologies intended for personalizing healthcare. The primary goal is to provide the student with clinically relevant knowledge that can be used in practice and for teaching other healthcare professionals, patients and families. Applications of genome science and technology are analyzed in the context of real world examples taken from a variety of clinical specialty areas to better understand the relation between genomics, health, and illness.

GNRS 622, Genome Science and Ethical Issues, 3 Units

This course examines current applications and implications of genome science and technology to healthcare, public health policy, economics, ethics, federal and state laws and societal issues. The following discussion topics are at the leading edge of healthcare and social debate: DNA biobbanking, genetic profiling, and genomic technologies used in genome medicine such as stem cell research, gene therapy, and genetic enhancements. In addition, the course addresses ethics, philosophy, and theology literature to explore thoughtful discussions that cover a wide range of genome applications in healthcare and health science research.

Prerequisite: GNRS 620

GNRS 660, Theories of Teaching and Instruction, 3 Units

This course analyzes selected teaching and learning models that are applicable to nursing education. Strategies for classroom and clinical teaching are examined. Research relative to nursing education is reviewed and critiqued. Design of research methods to determine effectiveness of teaching strategies is incorporated. Course development and student evaluation are emphasized. Selected faculty and nursing education issues are also explored.

GNRS 661, Leadership and Role Development in Nursing Education, 3 Units

This course includes an analysis of educational leadership and the multiple roles of the nurse educator related to teaching, scholarship, service, and practice. Theoretical perspectives and practical approaches supported by research in nursing and higher education literature, as well as the Christian educator's role promoting faith integration, are addressed.

GNRS 662, Assessment, Curriculum, Development, and Outcomes, 3 Units

Theoretical approaches to educational assessment, the development and implementation of nursing curriculum, and student and program outcomes are addressed. The importance of incorporating Christian values in the curriculum are emphasized. The course includes critical analyses of related topics based upon current research in nursing and higher education literatures.

GNRS 663, Clinical Practicum in Nursing Education, 3 Units

This practicum course builds on both clinical and teaching/learning theories, concepts in curriculum design, and instructional strategies. Under the supervision of a faculty/mentor, the practical classroom experience focuses on designing and implementing teaching plans for units of instruction, writing of teaching/learning objectives, selecting teaching strategies and learning activities, evaluating student learning outcomes, obtaining feedback on teaching performance from the faculty/mentors, students, self-evaluation, and reflection. The clinical teaching practical experience focuses on assessing and meeting nursing student clinical learning needs, conducting post-care conferences, clinical evaluation of nursing student performance, and student counseling.

Prerequisite: Admission to the Post-master's Academic Nurse Faculty Program or permission of program chair and instructor

GNRS 664, Teaching-Learning Strategies and Educational Technology in Nursing Education, 3 Units

This course will equip the nurse educator to develop and utilize theory- and evidence-based instructional strategies and tools in traditional and non-traditional formats in a variety of nursing educational settings.

Prerequisites: For MSN-NEd, completion of GNRS 660; for Nurse Educator Post-Master's Certificate, GNRS 660.

GNRS 695, Special Topics, 1-4 Units

A subject of current interest is examined in depth. Students analyze and evaluate controversial issues to reach and express a reflective position. This course may be repeated for credit to a maximum of 6 units applied toward the MSN or PhD degree; each course must address a different topic.

GNRS 700, Philosophy of Science, 3 Units

This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge and critical analytic skills to comparatively evaluate the philosophical foundations of scientific theories and the influence of Western philosophical schools of thought on the development of nursing science. Course content is organized to engage students in discussion and critical analysis of the epistemological and philosophic foundations of scientific theories and the characteristics of scientific knowledge according to the received view, paradigmatic view, perceived postmodern view, and feminist tradition. Special emphasis is given to the critical debate within nursing about the nature of nursing science.

GNRS 701, Nursing Knowledge Development, 3 Units

This course focuses on analyzing and critiquing the theoretical and methodological processes that are utilized in theory building and knowledge development in nursing. Discussion and critique of the different stages of theory development and students' experimentation with conceptualizing and developing their theoretical stance go hand in hand. Patterns of knowing, knowledge development, and criteria for evaluating nursing knowledge are examined in relation to the discipline's domain and the phenomena of concern in nursing.

GNRS 702, Nursing Theory, 3 Units

This course focuses on strategies for theory development such as concept analysis, conceptual mapping, and theoretical modeling as applied to the student's phenomenon of concern. It also provides critique and analysis of the major models and theories used in a variety of nursing settings in relation to existing interdisciplinary theoretical knowledge.

GNRS 703, Spirituality and Health, 3 Units

This course provides an introduction to spirituality, including spiritual experience, as it relates to individual health and illness. Communal spirituality is also considered. Differentiation is made between and among generic religious and Christian spiritualities. While the course covers theoretical aspects of spirituality and their interaction with health and illness, concentration is on the movement from theory to praxis. This lecture/seminar course is oriented toward nursing educators who seek to develop a foundation in spirituality for spiritual integration as well as for its development in nursing practice.

Prerequisite: Acceptance into the DNP or Ph.D. program.

GNRS 704, Faith Integration and Nursing Scholarship, 3 Units

This course begins with an exploration of the nature, role, problems, and possibilities of faith integration in higher education and in the nursing curriculum at all levels of higher education. The special circumstances of faith integration and its implications for teaching in secular college settings are explored. This course further provides a critical explication of theological method and content in three domains: biblical hermeneutics, constructive theology, and ministry praxis for education. The focus of the course is on the appropriation of theological method and knowledge for the purposes of integration into nursing education and practice especially (but not exclusively) within the context of a Christian or church-affiliated college.

GNRS 705, Social Ethics and Health Policy, 3 Units

This course seeks to provide a social ethics frame of reference for health care. Medical and biological advances have contributed to a rapidly expanding amount of human control over human and natural processes, including genetic potential and behaviors. This new power raises questions of morality and highlights the need for discussion and legislation regarding the complex issues raised by developments in health care, medical technology, and science. A comprehensive social ethic places decisions about health care within the context of a fuller account of purpose and meaning in life.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP or Ph.D.

GNRS 706, Methods of Inquiry, 3 Units

Exploration of various methods of inquiry focuses on the difference between scientific thinking, wisdom, and alternative concepts of knowledge. Existential dilemmas intrinsic to the pursuit of truth, the exploration of the meaning of actions, the process of interpretation, the perception of reality, and empirical generalizations are discussed and their influence on the definition of research problems and designs explored. The nature of the problem and assumptions and their relationship within the physical and social order are addressed with an emphasis on understanding the complexity and interrelatedness of events and the concept of ecology in research. Research designs and methods are introduced as they relate to problem definition and theory and includes an overview of the principles of basic and applied experimental research, evaluation research, and the traditions and foundation of qualitative and historical research. The role of triangulation as a methodological choice in research design and analysis is addressed to provide a more insightful approach to the exploration of complex phenomena.

GNRS 707, Quantitative Nursing Research Design I, 3 Units

This course focuses on advanced multiple research designs and data collection approaches. Emphasis is on experimental and quasi-experimental designs, epidemiological methods, survey research, and evaluation and outcomes research, as well as on planning design and sampling. Inferential statistics and advanced statistical analysis methods including ANOVA and various types of multiple regression analysis are incorporated within the course content.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP or Ph.D.

GNRS 708, Qualitative Nursing Research Design I, 3 Units

This course focuses on analyzing the epistemological foundations and the assumptions of qualitative research methodologies. It provides an introduction to the major qualitative research methodologies including grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography. Each methodology is analyzed as to its appropriateness for the research question. Experience in carrying out a pilot study in the selected methodology is provided.

GNRS 709, Advanced Statistical Analysis II, 3 Units

This course presents advanced methods of quantitative inquiry. The emphasis is on the use of factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, and structural equation modeling. Assumptions of the techniques are addressed. The course provides the student experience in using statistical packages for entering and analyzing data. Reporting results of the analyses is also incorporated. Making appropriate decisions regarding which of the advanced statistical techniques to use is stressed. Critique of the advanced statistical analyses of published health care research is also emphasized.

Prerequisite: GNRS 707

GNRS 710, Advanced Qualitative Research Methods, 3 Units

This course provides advanced knowledge and training in the use of qualitative research methods including phenomenological interpretation, grounded theory interpretation, ethnographic interpretation, focus groups interpretation and feminist interpretation. Intensive interpretive and structured approaches to analysis and methods of establishing plausibility, credibility, and adequacy of qualitative data are emphasized. Placement of the course: GNRS 708 is a

prerequisite to this course.

GNRS 711, Advanced Research Methods in the Humanities, 3 Units

This seminar and consultation course introduces PhD students to nonscientific research methodologies as used in the arts, letters, humanities and aspects of the social sciences for the (a) conduct of original dissertation research on one of the disciplines of arts, letters, humanities, or nonscientific aspects of one of the social sciences, (b) conduct humanities-based research to widen and deepen a scientific dissertation topic, or (c) to enlarge the student's methodological repertoire, knowledge, and skill. The course is intended for those whose primary research education and experience has been in scientific methods and disciplines.

Prerequisites: (a) successful completion of GNRS 701 and GNRS 706, (b) permission of the instructor (Enrollment limited to eight.)

GNRS 712, Advanced Evaluation Research, 3 Units

Evaluation research bridges the gap between conceptual definitions, theory formulation, and practice. Evaluation research utilizes quantitative and qualitative research designs to analyze evidence and disseminate the findings to identified stakeholders that will inform decision making and policy development. Explicit models of the decision process for program development and implementation are incorporated into the structure of the evaluation design and analysis. The course includes needs assessment, benchmarking or best practices, logic modeling, program theory development, empowerment evaluation, system analysis, and process-outcome designs. Examples incorporate national and international programs.

GNRS 713, Advanced Statistical Analysis I, 3 Units

This course presents common nonparametric and parametric statistical techniques used in healthcare research. Assumptions of the techniques are addressed. Specifically, the course emphasizes t-tests, ANOVA, ANCOVA, RANCOVA, correlation, odds ratio, regression, and power analysis, and provides the student experience in using SPSS for entering and analyzing data. Reporting results of the analyses is also incorporated. Making appropriate decisions regarding which statistical techniques to use is stressed. Critique of statistical analyses of published healthcare research is also emphasized.

GNRS 715, Psychosocial Issues of Older Adults, 3 Units

This course focuses on the biological and psychosocial processes throughout adulthood and the older years. Theories of aging are examined, as well as social role changes, social stratification, and the development of institutions of the aged. The course explores both normal aging and psychopathology, and the systematic intrinsic psychological or personality changes associated with development and adaptation in later life. Other topics include clarification of the causes and prevention of health maladies in the later years, and the nature and treatment of the most common psychopathologies. The psychodynamics of institutionalization and family care of the very old are also examined.

GNRS 716, Translational Research, 3 Units

The goal of this course is to help the nurse scientist identify strategies within a multidisciplinary model that promotes the ready translation of research developed from basic laboratory, clinical, or population studies. The course involves three stages as set forth by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The first stage, referred to as early translation, reviews a promising discovery that was developed in the lab, epidemiologic study, or other study that involves the initial development and testing of an intervention. In the second stage, or late translation, analysis of the study design and intervention used in clinical trials determines appropriate clinical guidelines. In the final stage, where dissemination involves the broader distribution of the intervention, emphasis is on analyzing the strengths and limitations in the clinical setting.

GNRS 717, Health Technology and Informatics, 3 Units

This course presents an overview of the evolution of health care informatics from an interdisciplinary perspective. Students learn health care informatics history, concepts, theories, legal and ethical implications, and applications within the health care industry. This course introduces the student to the information system life cycle, human factor issues in health care informatics, critical issues affecting the development and implementation of information and communication systems and technologies (clinical, administrative, and learning), knowledge management principles, professional practice trends, and emerging ICT (information and communication technology) in health care.

GNRS 718, Organizational Leadership and Strategic Planning, 3 Units

In this course, students acquire knowledge and skill to effectively manage change, empower others, and influence political processes. Advanced nursing practice leadership occurs in clinical practice with clients and staff, within healthcare institutions and professional organizations, and in healthcare policy making arenas. To develop the leadership role, students implement strategies for creating organizational change to provide high-quality services at reasonable costs. Focus is on organizational process, including the associated management of conflict, change, and control of risk within a political context.

Prerequisite: This course focuses on advanced multiple research designs and data collection approaches. Emphasis is on experimental and quasi-experimental designs, epidemiological methods, survey research, and evaluation and outcomes research, as well as on planning design and sampling. Inferential statistics and advanced statistical analysis methods including ANOVA and various types of multiple regression analysis are incorporated within the course content.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP or Ph.D.

GNRS 720, Wellness Promotion and Health Maintenance, 3 Units

This course focuses on the critical appraisal of theories and models of health promotion and on the evaluation of health initiatives developed for national health promotion and maintenance. Relevant risk prevention, control, and health promotion intervention strategies are emphasized. Communicable diseases; health hazards; high-risk health factors; acute and chronic illness across ethnicities, genders, and the life span; and morbidity and mortality of the nation's leading health problems are analyzed. Students' research questions are generated from a synthesis of knowledge regarding a specific phenomenon relevant to the student's individual area of study.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP or Ph.D. program

GNRS 721, Health Disparities and Vulnerable Populations, 3 Units

This course offers an analysis and evaluation of various topics and issues on health disparities of underserved ethnic or minority vulnerable populations as well as an analysis of research that describes, explains, and examines variables influencing health disparities and intervention strategies to reduce these disparities.

GNRS 722, Research in Nursing and Health, 3 Units

This course is team taught and reflects the research expertise and program of study of the nursing doctoral faculty. It focuses on analysis of determinants of health and illness across demographic, biological, psychological, familial/cultural, and societal dimensions. Attention is given to theoretical explanations toward promoting development of students' programs of research.

GNRS 724, Quantitative Nursing Research Design II - Psychometrics, 3 Units

This course is designed to introduce students to the methods of survey research. The course considers practical considerations in the construction of questionnaires including determining questionnaire content, selection of item types and wording of items, selection of an administration method, piloting questionnaires, and locating existing questionnaires. Discussion about conducting survey research considers sample selection, analyzing information obtained from questionnaires using SPSS, evaluating questionnaires, sources of error and how to reduce measurement error in survey research.

Prerequisite: GNRS 707

GNRS 725, Research Practicum, 1 Unit

The goal of the practicum is to further develop, mentor and socialize students into the roles and activities of research scientists and scholars. The emphasis is on mentoring to facilitate student progression in research methodology, culturally appropriate research strategies, data management, and data analysis. Students can chose either a quantitative practicum experience or a qualitative practicum experience.

Prerequisites: GNRS 706, GNRS 707, GNRS 708, GNRS 713, and GNRS 709 or GNRS 710.

GNRS 726, Advanced Scientific Writing, 3 Units

This course provides opportunities for students to learn how to research and introduce a topic in writing, articulate a thesis statement, support and develop a literature review, work with secondary sources, and organize a written paper that can be developed into a dissertation or translational research paper.

GNRS 727, Genome Science in Clinical Cases and Disease Management, 3 Units

This course focusing on medical family history taking, constructing and analyzing the pedigree, genetic counseling, clinical decision making and clinical case management for a wide variety of inherited and acquired diseases through the lens of emerging genome science. Clinical cases are discussed from a holistic perspective including: genome science, epidemiology, genomic profiling, genetic technologies, personalized medicine, interprofessional collaboration, ethical and legal issues, and health policy.

Prerequisite: GNRS 620

GNRS 728, Genome Science Research Methods, 3 Units

This course focuses on genome research methods for understanding and translating genome science to practice and to genome related nursing research. Understanding the research methods fosters a deeper understanding of the strength and the weaknesses of the science and an ability to critique the benefits and the limitations of the science for designing nursing research. The course includes a wide range of research methods that explore genetics or genomics in human populations. A key outcome of this course is to develop a research proposal using genome methods to design nursing research aimed at improving quality of health for individuals, families and populations.

Prerequisites: GNRS 620, GNRS 622, GNRS 727

GNRS 729, Population Health and Epidemiology, 3 Units

The concept of population health includes aggregate, community, environmental/occupational, and cultural/socioeconomic definitions of health. The implementation of clinical prevention and population health activities is central to achieving the national goal of improving health status and reducing health disparities among different aggregate groups. This course covers the basic elements and methodological concepts used in the epidemiologic study of factors related to health promotion and disease prevention in human populations. It brings together considerations from several fields of investigation, such as epigenetics, epidemiology, psychology, and public health, to study the effects on health and health-related outcomes.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP or Ph.D. program

GNRS 730, Comparative Health Care Systems, 3 Units

This course focuses on exploring/analyzing environmental, social, cultural, political and economic determinants of health across the globe. Comparative analysis of international health care systems including governmental, nongovernmental, traditional, and faith-based organizations are emphasized. Epidemiological analysis of morbidity and mortality, analysis of health and illness responses, and health-seeking behavior across the age span and gender/ethnic variables are discussed with the intent to identify areas of research relevant to students' interest. Presented from a Christian perspective, this course investigates research and practice opportunities and responsibilities for advanced practice nurses in global arenas.

GNRS 733A, Residency IA, 1 Unit

The first of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 733B and GNRS 733C with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading is pass/fail.

Prerequisite: Admission to DNP

GNRS 733B, Residency IB, 1 Unit

The second of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 733A and/or GNRS 733C with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading: pass/fail

GNRS 733C, Residency IC, 1 Unit

The third of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 733A and GNRS 733B with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading: pass/fail

GNRS 734A, Residency IIA, 1 Unit

The first of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 734B and GNRS 734C with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading: pass/fail

GNRS 734B, Residency IIB, 1 Unit

The second of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 734A and/or GNRS 734C with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading: pass/fail

GNRS 734C, Residency IIC, 1 Unit

The third of a three-course sequence, this course may be taken concurrently with GNRS 734A and GNRS 734B with approval of the DNP director or designee. Grading: pass/fail

GNRS 735, Translational Research Project Seminar, 3 Units

The DNP requires a rigorous clinical research project, focusing on translating scientific research to health care in a timely manner so that patients experience the best applications of science and practice. The translational research project is a scholarly experience that implements the principles of evidence-based practice and translation under the guidance of a faculty mentor. In line with the AACN Essentials of 2007, the outcome of the DNP research project is a tangible and deliverable academic product that is derived from the practice immersion experience and reviewed and evaluated by an academic committee. The project serves as a foundation for future scholarly practice.

GNRS 780, Doctoral Seminar I: Elements of a Proposal and IRB Application, 3 Units

This seminar directs the development of a research proposal leading to the development of either a dissertation or a translational research project. The seminar includes: (1) a brief review of research approaches and methodologies; (2) descriptions of the major components of a proposal; (3) discussion of strategies for completing and presenting a proposal; (4) preparation and critiques of student proposal drafts; and (5) discussion of the elements of an IRB application. Discussion will include ethical conduct of research and protection of human subjects.

GNRS 781, Doctoral Seminar II: Developing a Grant Proposal, 3 Units

The grant writing seminar provides students with the opportunity to develop a grant proposal including guidance on how to seek funding. Discussion will focus on understanding a Request for Funding Proposal (RFP), the goals and objectives identified by the funding agencies, and approaches on how to align your proposal with the funding agency guidelines. Techniques will include development of a purpose statement, work plan, and well planned budget, as well as the differences between a research and a program grant.

Prerequisite: GNRS 780

GNRS 782, Doctoral Seminar III: Writing for Publication, 3 Units

This seminar focuses on all aspects of writing for publication. It will help the student to get started on writing; identify writing styles for various forms of publication including abstracts, journal articles, papers, and books. The student will receive practice in reviewing and critiquing writing and in understanding the editorial process. Legal and ethical aspects of writing for publication will also be covered.

Prerequisites: GNRS 780, GNRS 781

GNRS 783, Doctoral Seminar IV: Developing Professional Presentations, 3 Units

This seminar identifies approaches to developing an effective and successful presentation. It assists students to find their voice and showcase areas of expertise. Discussions will focus on planning as essential to deciding on the content and the order in which the information will be presented. Emphasis will be on developing a logical sequence, one that flows naturally, and is accompanied by audiovisuals that facilitate understanding of the material.

Prerequisites: GNRS 780, GNRS 781, GNRS 782

GNRS 784, Dissertation Seminar V, 2-4 Units

This fifth dissertation seminar provides the student a forum to explore with their peers research findings, theoretical and empirical implications, and potential venues for publication of manuscripts. Format and procedures for progression in the dissertation process are also discussed. Placement of the Course: This seminar is not required if dissertation seminar requirement of 12 units has been met by GNRS 780, GNRS 781, GNRS 782, GNRS 783, and student has defended dissertation. Grading: Pass/Fail.

Prerequisite: GNRS 783

GNRS 795, Special Topics, 1-4 Units

In this course, a subject of current interest is examined in depth. Students analyze and evaluate controversial issues to reach and express a reflective position. Students may repeat the course for credit to a maximum of six units applied toward the doctoral program; each course must address a different topic.

GNRS 798, Continuous Doctoral Study, 0 Units

This course is for doctoral students working on dissertations or translational research projects. Students must re-enroll each semester until the dissertation or translational research project is completed, defended, submitted to the library, and approved.

GNRS 799, Independent Study, 1-4 Units

Students enroll in this course to pursue independent study investigating subjects and interests that lie beyond regular course offerings. The student explores topics in greater depth than in other courses, and/or initiates an individual project. Readings are pursued in accordance with a study plan, which is developed in consultation with a sponsoring doctoral faculty member and approved by the doctoral department