Department of Special Education

The Department of Special Education offers master’s degree and credential programs for candidates seeking a California Preliminary Education Specialist Credential with either a mild/moderate or moderate/severe disabilities specialization authorizing them to teach in the public K-12 environment. All Preliminary Education Specialist Credential programs are approved by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC)

APU candidates are prepared to work in schools as education specialists. Candidates must demonstrate the content, pedagogical, and professional knowledge, writing skills, and dispositions necessary to help all children learn. APU candidates are highly regarded in fulfilling these high professional standards. The department assesses all candidates from admission, throughout their program, and up to the recommendation of credentials. Assessment areas include, but are not limited to: CTC education specialist standards, CTC teacher performance expectations for education specialists, APU student learning outcomes, and teacher candidate dispositions. Candidates are expected to maintain a high level of professional and ethical behavior throughout their program; failure to do so may result in expulsion from the program.

Master’s Degree Programs

Education Specialist Preliminary Credential and Added Authorization Programs

EDTC 515, Emerging Trends in Technology, 3 Units

This class looks at the historical development of educational technology and the social issues influencing its growth and implementation. Attention is also given to a synthesis of research related to the field, professional organizations serving the discipline and emerging innovative uses of educational technology.

EDTC 517, Digital Communications, 3 Units

This course engages students in collaborative, investigative, and reflective learning opportunities through the exploration of relevant digital communication tools. Attention is given to current modes of communication that utilize a digital platform and effective strategies for implementation within teaching/learning environments.

EDTC 521, Digital Imagery for Learning Environments, 3 Units

This course covers a variety of digital imaging and audio applications and their operating tools utilized for teaching/learning environments. Students develop the skills necessary to create, design, and manipulate images along with editing video and audio for digital and/or interactive media.

EDTC 527, Special Topics in Educational Technology, 3 Units

The current technologies, trends, and a variety of special topics in educational technology are explored. The course covers practical and theoretical aspects, effectiveness, and problems related to the implementation of the topic into relevant teaching/learning environments. Different topics may be taken and repeated for credit.

EDUC 511, Essentials in Learning and Technology, 1 Unit

This course focuses on introducing and developing proficiency with the essential skills necessary for the Master of Arts in Education: Learning & Technology emphasis. Students utilize a variety of applications and skills necessary for competency in the program. This course must be taken in the first term of the program.

EDUC 526, Capstone Experience in Learning and Technology, 2 Units

The primary focus of this capstone experience is a research-designed multimedia eportfolio that showcases skills and concepts the student has acquired in the Master of Arts in Education: Learning & Technology program. This capstone course incorporates each student's research, use of applied technologies in learning and technology, a growth assessment, a comprehensive eportfolio and defense. This course must be taken at the end of the program, and passed in order to meet the final requirements for the master's degree.

EDUC 540, Essentials in Learning and Technology, 1 Unit

This course focuses on introducing and developing proficiency with the essential skills necessary for the Master of Arts in Education: Learning and Technology emphasis. Students utilize a variety of applications and skills necessary for competency in the program. This course must be taken in the first term of the program.

Prerequisite: Admission into a M.A. in Education: Learning and Technology program: Mild/Moderate Disabilities Education Specialist Credential, Moderate/Severe Disabilities Education Specialist Credential, Multiple Subject Teaching or Single Subject Teaching Credential

EDUC 546, Digital Communications, 3 Units

This course engages students in collaborative, investigative, and reflective learning opportunities through the exploration of relevant digital communication tools. Attention is given to current modes of communication that utilize a digital platform, and effective strategies for implementation within teaching/learning environments.

Prerequisite: EDUC 540

EDUC 547, Special Topics in Educational Technology, 3 Units

Current technologies, trends, and a variety of special topics in educational technology are explored. This course covers practical and theoretical aspects, effectiveness, and problems related to the implementation of the topic into relevant teaching/learning environments. Different topics may be taken and repeated for credit.

Prerequisite: EDUC 540, or permission of program to take course as elective

EDUC 548, Emerging Trends in Technology, 3 Units

This course covers the historical development of educational technology and the social issues influencing its growth and implementation. Attention is also given to a synthesis of research related to the field, professional organizations serving the discipline, and emerging innovative uses of educational technology.

Prerequisite: EDUC 540

EDUC 549, Capstone Experience in Learning and Technology, 2 Units

The primary focus of this capstone experience is a research-designed multimedia eportfolio that showcases skills and concepts the student has acquired in the Master of Arts in Education: Learning and Technology program. This course incorporates each student's research, use of applied technologies in learning and technology, a growth assessment, a comprehensive eportfolio, and defense. The course must be taken at the end of the program, and passed in order to meet the final requirements for the master's degree.

Prerequisite: EDUC 540, EDUC 546, EDUC 547, and EDUC 548; may be taken concurrently: TEP 552, TEP 562, SPED 552, or SPED 572

SPED 500, Special Topics, 1-3 Units

This course allows students to complete unit requirements for their credential or degree in special education.

SPED 501, Instructional Strategies for Students with Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course examines the instructional strategies, instructional methodology, and materials for teaching individuals with moderate/severe disabilities. It focuses on research-based instructional strategies that permit access to the CORE curriculum and grade-level standards, functional academics, life skills, and adaptations and modifications to Core curriculum and California State Standards.

SPED 502, Diagnosis and Prescriptive Intervention for Students with Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course provides candidates with the knowledge and skills about assessment procedures and remediation strategies to support students with moderate/severe disabilities. The student develops skills by gathering information from a variety of formal and informal sources. Each candidate demonstrates knowledge of principles and strategies of assessment, curriculum, and instruction, and utilizes assessment data to develop IEP goals, objectives, adaptations, and instructional plans.

SPED 503, Behavioral Support to Students with Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course provides the candidate with the skills and legal framework essential to the development of positive behavior supports and self-management outcomes for students with moderate/severe disabilities. Candidates examine the biological, neurological, and psychological foundations of behavior disorders, appropriate communication, and management strategies that are aligned with instructional practices. The foundations of functional analysis of behavior leading to positive behavior intervention plans are examined. Models of collaborative practices that lead to critical partnerships with students, families, educators and agencies are investigated through skill development and self-analysis.

SPED 508, Current Trends in Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities, 3 Units

This course explores transition processes for students with mild/moderate/severe disabilities across their lifespan. Additionally, this course explores and analyzes the transition processes and procedures integral to a comprehensive secondary transition education program design, including a focus on an outcomes orientation approach in working with all stakeholders in the preparation for post-secondary life in the areas of post-secondary education, employment, and life management, and evidence-based practices in instructional methods for community-based instruction (CBI), career development, work-based learning and integration of technology. The course includes a review of the use of informal and formal assessments that commonly guide the educational professional through the transition process for a student with disabilities (mild/moderate or moderate/severe). Additionally, the course examines promising practices in how to partner with all stakeholders (family, school, community and agency partners) to provide the needed supports and services as the student with disability transitions out of the post-secondary environment.

SPED 509, Technology in Special Education, 3 Units

This course introduces the use of media and technology and its impact on the delivery of services for students with disabilities. Devices (hardware and software) that may be used to adapt computers to the needs of the disabled child are considered such as audiovisual production equipment, commercial instructional materials, and augmentative communication devices, as well as other devices that may be necessary to provide an appropriate education for students with disabilities.

Prerequisite: Level II students only

SPED 510, Research-based Learning Theories, 3 Units

This course engages students in practitioner research to connect multi-intelligence and universal design theories into their special education practices. Students design unit plans to embed technology and differentiated instruction.

SPED 512, Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Theory to Practice, 3 Units

This course develops familiarity with a variety of topics that relate to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Issues related to diagnosis, etiologies, and characteristics of autism across the lifespan are presented. Candidates demonstrate required knowledge and skill outlined in the Standards: (S1) characteristics for students with ASD, (S2) teaching learning and behavior strategies for students with ASD, and (S3) collaborating with other service providers and Implementation for AB 2302 (Assembly Bass Bill).

SPED 521, Collaboration, Inclusion, Community Integration for Students with Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course provides the candidate with a systems perspective for understanding and supporting individuals with moderate/severe disabilities and their families as they interact with schools and community agencies. The candidate begins to develop an appreciation of the family issues related to living with an individual with a moderate/severe disability. Candidates learn effective collaborative strategies to assist with team building, program development, and joint problem solving, as well as strategies to assist students with moderate/severe disabilities and their families plan for transition from school to work. This course also provides the candidate with theories regarding second-language learners, cultural diversity and social skills in terms of understanding ethnic differences and the dynamics of interacting with the student's family.

SPED 522, Collaboration and Communication Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 3 Units

Designed to develop collaboration and consultation skills of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Includes home-school interactions, family and community support services. Provides an overview of communication, typical and atypical language and communication development across the life span and interventions for the development of language and communication are covered.

SPED 525, Methods of Teaching Reading and Writing, 3 Units

This course prepares teacher candidates to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking, aligned to the state-adopted English Language Arts Content Standards, the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007), and the Common Core State Standards for English-Language Arts (2012). Through application of research-based instructional practices introduced in the course, candidates learn to address the needs of special education students and the full range of diverse learners, as referenced in the framework and the RICA Content Specifications.

SPED 526, Specialized Academic Instruction: Reading, Writing, and Math, 3 Units

This course introduces candidates to multifaceted and multitiered methodologies and strategies necessary for teaching and engaging diverse students with disabilities in mathematics and language arts. Candidates become proficient in making explicit connections between ongoing assessment, student characteristics and strengths, instruction, and curriculum. They learn to analyze data to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions, and also how to collaboratively design effective IEP goals while considering the role of technology in those goals.

SPED 528, Assessment and IEP Development, 3 Units

This course examines current assessment mandates for students with mild to moderate to severe disabilities. Teacher candidates study test development and learn to evaluate assessment tools based on current research-based policies and mandates. Candidates also learn to administer and interpret norm-criterion reference assessment instruments and informal surveys or assessment instruments, and come to understand the influence of cultural and linguistic factors in the development of Individual Education Program (IEP) goals and Individual Transition Plans (ITPs).

Corequisite: SPED 551 or SPED 571

SPED 529, Positive Behavior Supports for Students with Exceptional Needs, 3 Units

This course provides teacher candidates with the skills and legal framework essential to the development of positive behavior supports and self-management outcomes for students with disabilities. Candidates examine foundations of behavior disorders, appropriate communication, and behavioral support strategies that align with best practices. The foundations of functional analysis of behavior that leads to the development of positive behavior intervention plans are examined. Models of collaborative practices that lead to positive relationships and critical partnerships with students, families, educators, and agencies are investigated through skill development and self-analysis.

Corequisite: SPED 552 or SPED 572

SPED 530, Introduction to Individual Differences and Strengths-based Education, 3 Units

Candidates are introduced to the characteristics of individuals with exceptional needs through strengths-based philosophy and educational practices modeled in the classroom. This course will explore factors including but not limited to cultural differences, socio-economic disadvantages, and gender biases, in order to achieve awareness of students' strengths and individuality of persons with differing experiences. There is an introduction to the legal requirements of educating culturally diverse learners in the least restrictive environments. This course is approved by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) to meet the mainstreaming requirements for a Clear Teaching Credential for the Multiple Subject and Single Subject Preliminary Credentialed student.

SPED 532, Bilingual Special Education, 3 Units

This course examines issues related to provisions of services to culturally and linguistically diverse students. This is a requirement for intern credential students who are meeting the preservice hours requirement/enhancement program. Emphasis is on techniques and strategies to modify general and special education classrooms to accommodate second-language learners with disabilities, including curriculum development, instructional methodology, and materials for teaching second-language learners with disabilities. Culturally sensitive assessment of second-language learners with disabilities and family-focused interventions is examined.

SPED 533, Assessment and IEP Development for Students with Mild/Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course examines various assessment tools and strategies that are appropriate to the diverse needs of individual students with mild/moderate/severe disabilities. Candidates learn how to assess the developmental, behavioral, social, communication, career and community life skills needs for students with mild/moderate/severe disabilities. Candidates learn to interpret assessment results to make instructional decisions and develop standards-based Individualized Education Programs.

SPED 535, Counseling, Collaboration, and Consultation, 3 Units

This course assists students in developing skills necessary for successful communication and collaboration and teamwork with administrators, teachers, paraprofessionals, and parents in providing services to individuals with exceptional needs.

SPED 536, Instructional Strategies in English Language Arts (Mild to Moderate), 3 Units

This course integrates RtI (Response to Intervention) with the area of special education as it relates to reading and written language. This course assists the teacher candidate in linking assessment data with mild to moderate disabilities including English language learners. The teacher candidate learns to develop effective IEP goals and integrate assistive technology. The course also addresses issues of classroom organization to ensure the classroom setting promotes equality for all students.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education program

SPED 538, Special Education Issues: Mild/Moderate Disabilities, 3 Units

This course provides original analysis of important conceptual and practical issues faced by professionals involved in educating students with mild to moderate disabilities. It addresses issues surrounding home-school-community partnerships. This course is designed to heighten concern for educational outcomes for all students, and to examine the challenges that alternative practices such as school choice, transitional services, and inclusion create for the professional and student in the field of special education.

Prerequisite: Educational Specialist Clear Credential Candidates only

SPED 540, Instructional Strategies in Mathematics (Mild to Moderate), 3 Units

This course integrates RtI (Response to Intervention) with the area of special education as it relates to math disorders. This course assists the teacher candidate in linking assessment data with research-based effective intervention strategies for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities including English language learners. The teacher candidate learns to develop effective IEP goals and integrate assistive technology. The course also addresses issues of classroom organization to ensure the classroom setting promotes equality for all students.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education program

SPED 541, Positive Behavior Supports to Students with Mild/Moderate/Severe Disabilities, 3 Units

This course examines the legal framework essential to the assessment and development of positive behavior supports and self-management outcomes for students with mild/moderate/severe disabilities. Candidates will learn the functions of behavior and design appropriate behavior support strategies based on functional behavior assessments. Models of collaborative practices that lead to critical partnerships with students, families, educators and agencies are investigated through skill development and self-analysis.

SPED 542, Meeting the Academic Needs of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 3 Units

This course examines methods and teaching strategies required to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Includes instruction on structuring the learning environment for individual success and curriculum adaptation for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The course also includes language and communication strategies appropriate for students with ASD.

SPED 551, Clinical Practice I: Mild to Moderate Disabilities, 2 Units

Students with mild/moderate disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of specific learning disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, autism, other health impairments, or other identified disabilities for which placement in a classroom for students with mild/moderate disabilities is deemed appropriate. Teacher candidates, as part of their clinical practice, get on-site experience providing the support described in students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with mild/moderate disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine students' current levels of performance, planning for students' grade and instructional levels, and capturing data to support progress on annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with California Content Standards. Candidates also monitor students' progress toward instructional goals and state-adopted standards, and, if necessary, identify behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports. Candidates complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students.

SPED 547, Implementation of Special Education Legislation, 3 Units

An overview of special education legal mandates is provided to students as articulated in the Individuals Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA) 2004. Students also study techniques of conducting pupil identification, Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings, coordinating individualized education programs, monitoring timelines, and observing parents' rights and due process procedures.

Prerequisite: Education Specialist Clear Credential Candidates and Adaptive Physical Education Candidates only

SPED 552, Clinical Practice II: Mild to Moderate Disabilities, 2 Units

Students with mild/moderate disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of specific learning disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, autism, other health impairments, or other identified disabilities for which placement in a classroom for students with mild/moderate disabilities is deemed appropriate. Teacher candidates, as part of their clinical practice, get on-site experience providing the support described in students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with mild/moderate disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine students' current levels of performance, planning for students' grade and instructional levels, and capturing data to support progress on annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with California Content Standards. Candidates also monitor students' progress toward instructional goals and state-adopted standards, and, if necessary, identify behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports. Candidates complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students.

Prerequisite: SPED 551

SPED 554, Advanced Study: Teaching Special Populations, 3 Units

This course builds on the knowledge, skills, and strategies candidates acquire during coursework for a preliminary teaching credential. Each candidate: (a) becomes familiar with statutory provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), subsequent changes in the act, and any new, relevant statutory requirements; (b) discusses the statutory and/or local provisions relating to the education of students who are gifted and talented; (c) demonstrates the ability to create a positive, inclusive climate for individualized, specialized instruction and the assessment of students with special needs and/or abilities; and (d) demonstrates the use of instructional strategies to provide students with disabilities appropriate learning opportunities to master grade-level, state-adopted academic content standards for students at high performance levels. Finally, each candidate demonstrates the ability to establish cooperative and collaborative relationships with community and school professionals significant to the education of students with disabilities and with students' care givers, as well as with community and school professionals significant to the education of students who are gifted and talented. This course fulfills the CTC Standard for Exceptional Learner coursework required for 2042 Clear Credential. It requires permission of the program director and may not be taken prior to being recommended for the 2042 Preliminary Teaching Credential.

SPED 555A, Field Experience and Seminar (Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the intern teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Intern Teacher candidates will be assigned a University Mentor that will provide supervision during Field Experience. The primary task of the University Mentor is to assist the teacher candidate in understanding and assuming the role of the classroom teacher. Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education moderate to severe preliminary credential program.

SPED 555B, Field Experience and Seminar (Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the intern teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Intern Teacher candidates will be assigned a University Mentor that will provide supervision during Field Experience. The primary task of the University Mentor is to assist the teacher candidate in understanding and assuming the role of the classroom teacher. Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education moderate to severe preliminary credential program.

SPED 556A, Field Experience and Seminar (Non-Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education moderate to severe preliminary credential program.

SPED 556B, Field Experience and Seminar (Non-Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education moderate to severe preliminary credential program.

SPED 558, Advanced Theory and Research-based Practices for Supporting Students with Disabilities, 3 Units

This course builds on the knowledge, skills, and strategies candidates acquired during coursework for a preliminary teaching credential (mild/moderate or moderate/severe). Each candidate becomes familiar with the current theoretical models for serving students with disabilities in different settings. The course examines evidence-based instructional and behavioral practices for supporting students with disabilities in the classroom. Candidates demonstrate the ability to create a socially positive, instructionally rich, and behaviorally supportive environment for students with disabilities in a general education setting. Each candidate demonstrates the ability to establish cooperative and collaborative relationships with the families and community/school professionals significant to the education of students with disabilities.

Prerequisite: Admission to special education program

SPED 565A, Field Experience and Seminar (Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the intern teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Intern Teacher candidates will be assigned a University Mentor that will provide supervision during Field Experience. The primary task of the University Mentor is to assist the teacher candidate in understanding and assuming the role of the classroom teacher. Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

SPED 565B, Field Experience and Seminar (Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the intern teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s). Intern Teacher candidates will be assigned a University Mentor that will provide supervision during Field Experience. The primary task of the University Mentor is to assist the teacher candidate in understanding and assuming the role of the classroom teacher. Candidates also attend two seminars during each nine-week session. The seminar explores pedagogical, legal, and professional topics that are important for special education teacher candidates.

SPED 566A, Field Experience and Seminar (Non-Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s).

SPED 566B, Field Experience and Seminar (Non-Intern), 1 Unit

This course offers the teacher candidate planned observational experiences and/or interactions with the full range of the service delivery system, the providers of such services, and parent and families, including in general education. Candidates conduct observations in a variety of K-12 settings. These experiences reflect the full diversity of grades/ages, federal disability categories and the continuum of special education services outlined in the specific credential authorization. Candidates complete two consecutive nine-week sessions of 60 hours of field experience (30 hours each session). The distribution of observation must take place at WASC-approved school site(s).

SPED 571, Clinical Practice I: Moderate to Severe Disabilities, 2 Units

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, autism spectrum disorder, and/or motor impairments. Teacher candidates, as part of their clinical practice, get on-site experience providing the support described in the students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine students' current levels of performance, planning instructional-level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, and identifying behaviors impeding learning and then remediating by implementing positive behavior supports. Candidates complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students.

SPED 572, Clinical Practice II: Moderate to Severe Disabilities, 2 Units

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, autism spectrum disorder, and/or motor impairments. Teacher candidates, as part of their clinical practice, get on-site experience providing the support described in the students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine students' current levels of performance, planning instructional-level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, and identifying behaviors impeding learning and then remediating by implementing positive behavior supports. Candidates complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students.

Prerequisite: SPED 571

SPED 575A, Clinical Practice I (Contract Teaching, K-12), 1 Unit

Credit is given for a nine-week term in Fall I or Spring I (SPED 575A) or Fall II or Spring II (SPED 575B) of full-time supervised teaching in public schools as an intern teacher under contract. The intern teacher fulfills all responsibilities for which a beginning teacher is accountable with dual mentorship provided by both the university and school site.

SPED 575B, Clinical Practice II (Contract Teaching, K-12), 1 Unit

Credit is given for a nine-week term in Fall I or Spring I (SPED 575A) or Fall II or Spring II (SPED 575B) of full-time supervised teaching in public schools as an intern teacher under contract. The intern teacher fulfills all responsibilities for which a beginning teacher is accountable with dual mentorship provided by both the university and school site.

Corequisite: SPED 575A

SPED 576A, Clinical Practice I (Student Teaching, K-12), 1 Unit

Students complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students. Students who successfully complete student teaching and meet all CTC requirements and other applicable state requirements are recommended for Preliminary Mild/Moderate Disabilities Specialist Credential. Applications for enrollment in Clinical Practice must be made by April 1 for the fall semester, or by October 1 for the spring semester.

Prerequisite: Admission to Mild/Moderate Disabilities Credential program; student must submit application and be cleared prior to student teaching.

SPED 576B, Clinical Practice II (Student Teaching, K-12), 1 Unit

Students complete a semester of full-time, supervised student teaching in appropriate public school classrooms, with assignments in classroom grade levels K-12. Each placement provides teaching experiences with English language learners and ethnically diverse students. Students who successfully complete student teaching and meet all CTC requirements and other applicable state requirements are recommended for Preliminary Mild/Moderate Disabilities Specialist Credential. Applications for enrollment in Clinical Practice must be made by April 1 for the fall semester, or by October 1 for the spring semester.

Prerequisite: Admission to Mild/Moderate Disabilities Credential program; student must submit application and be cleared prior to student teaching.

SPED 581, Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Disability Studies, 3 Units

This course explores and analyzes the key definition of disability in light of the major theories, methodological approaches, and proposed public policy uses that shape them. Emphasis is given to the formulation of important research questions and the development of testable hypotheses based on previous theory, literature, and experience. A diverse set of current research articles on disability studies is analyzed to serve as examples and raise questions about how different research topics have been addressed and might be used to stimulate future studies. The course considers how civil rights, human rights, self-determination, social policy, and participative action research influence disability studies.

Prerequisite: SPED 582

SPED 582, Theories of Learning and Research in Disabilities Studies, 3 Units

This advanced course enables candidates to become more informed consumers and designers of empirical research. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches to designing and collecting data are examined within the context of the special education discipline. This course is the second of four core course requirements for the master's degree program in special education. This course develops knowledge and skills in educational research and inquiry. The candidate chooses a research method and begin to frame the research in order to continue with the research process for the next core requirement.

SPED 583, Current Trends in Curriculum and Disabilities Studies, 3 Units

This course explores and analyzes the key definition of disability in light of the major theories, methodological approaches, and proposed public policy uses that shape them. Emphasis is given to the formulation of important research questions and the development of testable hypotheses based on previous theory, literature, and experience. A diverse set of current research articles in disability studies is analyzed to serve as examples and raise questions about how different research topics have been addressed and might be used to stimulate future studies. The course considers how civil rights, human rights, self-determination, social policy, and participative action research influence disability studies.

SPED 584A, Guided Research Project: Procedures, 3 Units

Candidates continue to examine educational research within the special education framework. Through quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, candidates incorporate all of the pieces developed in the previous research core courses and develop a research plan, making data-driven decisions for the development and implementation of the research plan. The research process is reviewed with the emphasis on design, application, and consumption, as well as standards for writing research papers.

Prerequisite: Admission to SPED Credential program

SPED 584B, Guided Research Project: Findings, 3 Units

Candidates continue to examine educational research within the special education framework. Through quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, candidates incorporate all of the pieces developed in the previous research core courses and develop a research plan, making data-driven decisions for the development and implementation of the research plan. The research process is reviewed with the emphasis on design, application, and consumption, as well as standards for writing research papers.

SPED 585A, Clinical Practice/Seminar for Moderate/Severe Disabilities I (Contract Teaching), 2 Units

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, and/or motor impairments. During clinical practice, teacher candidates are provided with on-site experiences that provide the support described in the students' Individual Educational Programs (IEP). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine the students' current levels of performance, planning instructional level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with the California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, identifying behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports.

SPED 585B, Clinical Practice/Seminar for Moderate/Severe Disabilities II (Contract Teaching), 1 Unit

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, and/or motor impairments. During clinical practice, teacher candidates are provided with on-site experiences that provide the support described in the students' Individual Educational Programs (IEP). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine the students' current levels of performance, planning instructional level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with the California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, identifying behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports.

SPED 586A, Clinical Practice/Seminar for Moderate/Severe Disabilities I (Student Teaching), 2 Units

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, and/or motor impairments. During clinical practice, teacher candidates are provided with on-site experiences that provide the support described in the students' Individual Educational Programs (IEP). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine the students' current levels of performance, planning instructional level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with the California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, identifying behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports.

SPED 586B, Clinical Practice/Seminar for Moderate/Severe Disabilities II (Student Teaching), 1 Unit

Students with moderate/severe disabilities require specialized support to address unique learning needs resulting from a range of intellectual, behavioral, emotional, communication, sensory, and/or motor impairments. During clinical practice, teacher candidates are provided with on-site experiences that provide the support described in the students' Individual Educational Programs (IEP). These experiences include, but are not limited to, creating an appropriate classroom physical environment for students with moderate/severe disabilities, conducting formal and informal assessments in order to determine the students' current levels of performance, planning instructional level annual goals and short-term objectives that are aligned with the California Content Standards, monitoring students' progress toward instructional goals and short-term objectives, identifying behaviors impeding learning, and remediate by implementing positive behavior supports.

TESP 501, Art of Teaching I: Foundations of Teaching, 3 Units

This course provides an introduction to basic pedagogy, including classroom management, lesson planning and teaching, standards-based instruction, teaching strategies for students with diverse identities and needs, and the application of technology to support teaching and learning. Teacher candidates consider strategies, models, and processes for meeting the needs of a broad range of K-12 students, including special needs students, gifted students, English language learners, speakers of nondominant varieties of English, and students of all cultural or ethnic identities. This course is designed for direct application of classroom learning by candidates in a collaborative context that implements inclusion. Candidates examine Christian character and develop an understanding of grace in the Christian worldview as applied in classroom contexts, in consideration of meeting the needs of students and building community within the classroom. This course includes 15 hours of required field experience in a K-12 school.

TESP 502, Science of Teaching I: How Students Learn, 3 Units

This course comprises a basic overview of human growth and development for all students in the K-12 environment. Teacher candidates identify how research on the neuroscience of learning, theories of learning, and student motivation affect current understanding of student development through the K-12 education experience. They then creatively and collaboratively investigate how this knowledge can enable them to meet the needs of all students, including underserved populations, English language learners, and individuals with diverse learning needs (from gifted learners to individuals with mild to severe disabilities). Candidates also examine their own cultural beliefs, attitudes toward diversity, and related assumptions, identifying how these might affect student learning and achievement in their classrooms. Candidates demonstrate applied knowledge of communication styles and strategies for fostering positive cross-cultural interactions among students who are diverse in terms of culture, language, and ability. Finally, candidates reflect on the need to support the development of all students from a Christian worldview. This course includes 15 hours of required field experience in a K-12 school.

TESP 503, The Soul of Teaching: Tapestry of American Education, 3 Units

This course introduces teacher candidates to the history of American education and a sampling of modern philosophies of education, examined through the lens of a Christian worldview. Specific consideration is given to the ways in which historical trends have contributed to today's education system, including how social and philosophical movements, as well as policy changes, have shaped the growth and inclusiveness of education in the U.S. Candidates reflect on the continued need for education equity for all students in U.S. schools, and explore inclusive practices for diverse populations, professional dispositions, teacher resiliency, and their role in perpetuating social justice in education. They engage culturally appropriate response strategies that enhance learning opportunities in a cross-cultural context, and identify how a Christian worldview enables and directs a commitment to principles of equity and justice in their practice.

TESP 504, Schools and Educational Systems, 3 Units

This course explores the legal, ethical, and organizational systems (federal, state, district, and school) within which teachers conduct their work. Teacher candidates engage in an examination of school and community cultures and their impact on learning, by focusing on the ways teachers communicate and collaborate with external and internal stakeholders to provide equitable access to all students. Additionally, contractual responsibilities and professional expectations are addressed. Candidates also consider the ways in which educators, from a Christian worldview, can advocate to transform social problems impacting school culture.

TESP 511, Art of Teaching II: Pedagogy and Instructional Design, 3 Units

This course explores pedagogy as the combination of teachers' professional knowledge, skills, and abilities, which are directed to create effective learning opportunities and outcomes for all students in a range of contexts. Building on broad themes from TESP 501 Art of Teaching I, teacher candidates explore pedagogical methods and specific models for meeting individual student needs, utilizing universal and individualized strategies. Attention is given to culturally responsive teaching practices for learners with diverse cultural and ethnic identities, as well as differentiation practices for students with various learning needs. Candidates further analyze the relationship between curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. Finally, candidates examine and reflect on the Christian worldview in relation to student diversity and developing a climate of equity and collaboration within classrooms. This course includes 15 hours of required field experience in a K-12 school.

Prerequisite: TESP 501

TESP 512, Science of Teaching II: Effective Assessment Strategies for All Learners, 3 Units

This course explores strategies for designing standards and data-driven curricular plans and units to serve diverse student populations (e.g., culturally, linguistically, and/or ability-diverse learners). Teacher candidates engage in the administration and analysis of formative, summative, diagnostic assessment to inform the ongoing development of differentiated instruction that serves the unique academic needs of students from diverse, intersecting backgrounds and identities. In view of the academic achievement gap that exists in California K-12 schools, candidates utilize assessment results, alongside state frameworks and current standards specific to their specialization, in development of further curriculum/planning, instruction, and assessment cycles; these will demonstrate the use of instructional strategies, materials, technologies, and other resources to make content connected, contextualized, and accessible to all students. Candidates consider how a Christian worldview catalyzes their commitment to engage fully in the work of creating classrooms that meet the needs of all their students. This course includes 15 hours of required field experience in a K-12 school.

Prerequisite: TESP 502